This unit covers the complex nature of the structure and function of the different organ systems in animals with special emphasis on the life processes.

1. Nutrition and Digestion

  1. Types of Nutrition
  2. Types of Digestion
  3. Human Digestive System
  4. Process of Digestion
  5. Absorption of Nutrients
  6. Assimilation
  7. Egestion
  8. Neural and Harmonal Control of Digestion
  9. Role of Liver in Metabolism
  10. Digestive Disorders

2. Respiration

  1. Respiratory System in Humans
  2. Mechanism of Pulmonary Respiration
  3. Common Respiratory Disorders

3. Excretion

  1. Modes of Removal of Nitrogenous Wastes
  2. Excretary Organs in Humans
  3. Formation of Urine
  4. Renin-angiotensin and Atrial Natriuretic Factor
  5. Osmoregulation by Kidney
  6. Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation
  7. Role of Liver in Excretion

4. Circulation of Body Fluids

  1. Functions and Types of Circulatory System
  2. Organs of Human Circulatory System
  3. Immunity
  4. Disorders Related to Blood & Heart

5. Locomotion and Movement

  1. Types of Movements for Locomotion
  2. Muscular Movements
  3. Human Skeleton System
  4. Muscular and Skeletal Disorders

6. Nervous System

  1. Functions of Nervous System
  2. Nervous System of Humans
  3. Peripheral Nervous System
  4. Neuron
  5. Reflex Action
  6. Sense Organs

7. Endocrine System

  1. Nature and Function of Hormones
  2. Endocrine Glands
  3. Control of Hormone Secretion

8. Homeostasis: The Steady State

  1. Concept of Homeostasis
  2. Thermoregulation
  3. Endotherms and Ectotherms
  4. Mechanism of Thermoregulation in Humans

9. Nutrition and Health

  1. Classification of Food
  2. Macronutrients and Micronutrients
  3. Carbohydrate
  4. Fats
  5. Proteins
  6. Vitamins
  7. Minerals
  8. Water and Roughage
  9. Energy Requirements of Body
  10. Balanced Diet

10. Human Diseases

  1. Meaning of Health and Disease
  2. Types of Diseases
  3. Modes of Spread of Communicable Diseases
  4. Protein Energy Malnutrition
  5. Mineral Deficiency Diseases
  6. Excessive Intake of Food
  7. Diseases Caused by Viruses
  8. Diseases Caused by Bacteria
  9. Diseases Caused by Protozoans
  10. Diseases Caused by Worms
  11. Non-Communicable Diseases
  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases