This unit covers the diverse methods of reproduction in living beings from unicellular organisms to complex forms including humans; the increase in human population all over the world; the methods of family planning and birth control. The principles and mechanisms of heredity in determining the characteristics of organism has also been discussed in this unit.

1. Reproduction in Plants

  1. Modes of Reproduction in Plants
  2. Reproduction in Lower Plants
  3. Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  4. Stamen, Microsporangia and Pollen Grains
  5. Pollination
  6. Fertilization
  7. Vegetative Reproduction in Angiosperms

2. Growth and Development in Plants

  1. Factors Affecting Plant Growth
  2. Seed Germination
  3. Photoperiodism
  4. Vernalisation
  5. Aging of Plants
  6. Plant Movements

3. Reproduction in Humans

  1. Human Reproductive System
  2. Male Reproductive System
  3. Female Reproductive System
  4. Menstrual Cycle in Human Females
  5. Fertilization, Pregnancy and Development of Embryo
  6. Medical Techniques in Reproduction

4. Principles of Genetics

  1. Heredity and Variation
  2. Mendel’s Experiments on Garden Pea
  3. Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance
  4. Important Terms in Genetics
  5. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
  6. Linkage and Crossing Over
  7. Sex Determination in Humans
  8. Criss-Cross Inheritance
  9. Human Karyotype
  10. Genetic Disorders in Humans
  11. Amniocentesis
  12. Human Genome

5. Molecular Inheritance and Gene Expression

  1. One Gene One Enzyme Hypothesis
  2. Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material
  3. Structure of DNA
  4. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid
  5. DNA Replication
  6. Genes and Protein Synthesis