Geography is the study of earth’s landscapes, people, places and environment. It is unique in bridging the social sciences with natural sciences.
1. Differentiate between intensive and extensive farming?
The basic difference between these two types of farming is the amount of production from per unit of land. USA, Canada, former USSR are the major countries where extensive farming is practiced whereas Japan is the leading example of intensive farming.
1. "Bio-diversity is fundamental to the existence of life on the earth" Justify the statement.
Biodiversity is fundamental to the existence of life on the earth because this is extremely valuable in different facets of life which includes providing of food, water, fiber, fuel etc. and regulating of climate and diseases.
Due to its unique geographical position, India is rich in wildlife. Wildlife of India is a great natural heritage. It is estimated that about 80 percent of all known plant and animal species on the earth are found in India. Many plants synthesise substances that are useful to the maintenance of health in humans and other animals.
As in any other part of the world, natural vegetation of India is also determined by climate, physiographic and soil factors. Based on factors of temperature, rainfall and topographic conditions, India has diverse vegetation patterns. Dense natural vegetation is found in North-Eastern region, Western Ghats and Andaman Nicobar. The Northern plain and North-Western Region supports very scanty vegetation and is under cultivation. The Deccan region is full of scrubs and mixed deciduous forests.
Monsoons refer to a system of winds in the tropical regions under which the direction of winds is reversed completely between the summer and the winter seasons. Under this system, the winds blow from land to sea in winter and from sea to land in summer. Therefore, most of the rainfall in the regions influenced by the monsoons is received in the summer season while winter season is generally dry.
The drainage system refers to the system of flow of surface water mainly through rivers. An area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin. The drainage system is related to a number of factors like slope of land, geological structure, amount and velocity of water.
Terrain is an area of land which usually has a particular type of physical feature. Like, Mumbai beach is sandy and Shillong is a hilly. India is a vast country with varied land forms and topography. Topography means the features of a place determined by nature. It is the description of various features and landscape on the surface of the earth.
India has three distinct physical divisions. The northern boundaries of India are provided by the lofty ranges of the Himalayas, which run almost in a wall-like shape from north-west to north-east. India has the Great Plains of northern India formed by the basins of three mighty river systems - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Generally, population means a collection of people living in a given geographic area or territory. This is how it is used in the census. The collection of people is seen and understood primarily in terms of number. But population is also considered as a resource, a human resource.
Communication keeps people informed about the world’s events and trends. It brings in positive changes in the life of the people and thereby enhancing their economic conditions. Communication is a system of carrying messages to exchange thoughts, ideas and information and also to share your sorrows and pleasures with your family members or friends.
Transport facilitates trade and commerce by carrying goods from the areas of production to that of consumption. Goods from the areas that have surplus are shifted to those areas which are deficient in those items. Movement of people from one place to another place in search of job, education and emergency through transport facility.
Challenges faced by Indian agriculture can broadly be grouped into two categories. One category belongs to the problems that have been long standing. Second category of problems is new and has been emerging from the prevailing agricultural practices, system, changing climate and economy.
In India, around 70% of the population earns its livelihood from agriculture. It fulfils the basic need of human beings and animals. It is an important source of raw material for many agro-based industries. India’s geographical condition is unique for agriculture because it provides many favourable conditions. There are plain areas, fertile soil, long growing season and wide variation in climatic condition, etc. Apart from unique geographical conditions, India has been consistently making innovative efforts by using science and technology to increase production.
The climate is always for a large area like a country or a big region and generally it does not change, like India has monsoon climate whereas weather is always for a smaller area like that of a city or village where it may frequently change like raining in the morning and sunny in the afternoon.
If the whole world was flat, the scheme of rectangular coordinates would serve all map purposes. The earth is not a perfect sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle. It is difficult to describe the location of a point on a sphere like the earth.
Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth’s surface. The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life-forms and time. Components of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air.
The Himalayan Mountain ranges are considered as the abode of the mountains, and the youngest and the highest mountain range in the world. The Himalayan Mountains extend up to 2,500 km in length. It stretches from Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The major peaks in the Himalayas are situated in the Karakoram ranges, Garhwal Himalaya and Kanchenjunga. Kanchenjunga, Nanda Devi, and Kamet are the highest Himalayan Mountain Peaks.
All natural earthquakes take place in the lithosphere. The study of seismic waves provides a comprehensive picture of the layered interior. An earthquake is shaking of the earth’s crust. It is caused due to the release of energy, which produces waves that travel in all directions. The release of energy occurs along a fault. A fault is a sharp break in the crustal rocks. Rocks along a fault tend to move in opposite directions.
A volcano is a vent or fissure in Earth’s crust through which lava, ash, rocks, and gases erupt. An active volcano is a volcano that has erupted in the recent past. The mantle contains a weaker zone called asthenosphere. The material in the asthenosphere is called magma.
Biosphere Reserves are multipurpose protected areas to preserve the genetic diversity in representative ecosystems. Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal or marine ecosystems or its amalgamation. The biosphere reserve network was launched in 1976, two years after the initiation of MAB (Man and Biosphere) Programme. The Government of India had established 18 biospheres in the country.