Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur.

1. Basic Principles

  1. Carbon Atom in Organic Chemistry
  2. Classification of Hydrocarbons

IUPAC Nomenclature

  1. Straight Chain Hydrocarbons
  2. Branched Chain Hydrocarbons
  3. Alicyclic Compounds
  4. Aromatic Compounds
  5. Compounds with Functional Groups

Reactions

  1. Breaking of Covalent Bond
  2. Electron Displacements in Covalent Bond
  3. Substitution Reactions
  4. Addition Reactions
  5. Elimination Reactions

Isomerism

  1. Isomerism
  2. Structural Isomerism
  3. Stereoisomerism

2. Alkanes

Preparation

  1. Reduction of Haloalkanes
  2. Wurtz Reaction and Core-House Synthesis
  3. Addition of Hydrogen to Alkenes
  4. Addition of Hydrogen to Alkynes
  5. From Alcohols, Aldehydes & ketones
  6. From Carboxylic Acids

Physical Properties

  1. Physical State
  2. Density
  3. Boiling Point
  4. Melting Point

Chemical Properties

  1. Halogenation
  2. Oxidation
  3. Dehydrogenation
  4. Pyrolysis
  5. Isomerisation

3. Alkenes

Preparation

  1. Dehydrogenation of Alkanes
  2. Elimination Reaction of Haloalkane
  3. Dehydration of Alcohols

Addition Reactions

  1. Addition of Hydrogen
  2. Addition of Halogens
  3. Addition of Halogen Acids
  4. Addition of Water
  5. Addition Polymerization

Oxidation Reactions

  1. Oxidation with KMnO4
  2. Oxidation with Oxygen
  3. Combustion
  4. Oxidation with Ozone

4. Alkynes

Preparation of Ethyne

  1. From Calcium Carbide
  2. From Dihaloalkanes

Addition Reactions

  1. Addition of Hydrogen
  2. Addition of Halogens
  3. Addition of Halogen Acids
  4. Addition of Water

Oxidation Reactions

  1. Oxidation with KMnO4
  2. Combustion
  3. Oxidation with Ozone

Acidic Nature of Alkynes

5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Structure of Benzene

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

  1. Halogenation of Benzene
  2. Nitration of Benzene
  3. Sulphonation of Benzene
  4. Friedel Craft's Reactions

Directive Influence of Functional Groups 

6. Haloalkanes

Preparation

Chemical Properties

  1. Substitution Reactions
  2. Elimination Reactions
  3. Reaction with Metals
  4. Reduction

7. Haloarenes

Preparation

Chemical Properties

Poly Halogen Compounds

  1. Chloroform
  2. Iodoform
  3. DDT
  4. BHC

8. Alcohols

Classification of Alcohols

Preparation

  1. Hydrolysis of Haloalkanes
  2. Hydration of Alkenes
  3. Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds
  4. Diazotization of Primary Aliphatic Amines
  5. Fermentation

Structure and Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

  1. Acidic and Basic Behavior
  2. Formation of Alkoxides
  3. Conversion to Alkyl Halides
  4. Formation of Alkenes
  5. Formation of Ethers
  6. Oxidation
  7. Formation of Esters

9. Phenols

Nomenclature

Preparation

  1. From Arenediazonium Salts
  2. Alkali Fusion of Sodium Benzenesulphonate
  3. Dow Process
  4. From Cumene Hydroperoxide

Chemical Properties

  1. Acidic and Basic Nature
  2. Halogenation
  3. Nitration
  4. Kolbe Reaction
  5. Oxidation
  6. Reimer Tiemann Reaction
  7. Esterification
  8. Coupling Reaction

10. Ethers

Nomenclature

Structure and Physical Properties

Preparation

  1. Dehydration of Alcohols
  2. Williamson Synthesis

Chemical Properties

  1. Reaction with Oxygen
  2. Reaction with Acids
  3. Acidic Cleavage

11. Aldehydes and Ketones

Nomenclature

Structure and Physical Properties

Preparation

  1. Oxidation of Alcohols
  2. Ozonolysis of Alkenes
  3. Hydration of Alkynes
  4. Friedal Craft's Acylation

Chemical Properties

  1. Formation of Cyanohydrins
  2. Formation of Hemiacetals
  3. Formation of Alcohols
  4. Reaction with Ammonia and its Derivatives
  5. Wolff-Kishner Reduction
  6. Clemmensen Reduction
  7. Oxidation of Aldehydes
  8. Reaction at α-carbon
  9. Halogenation
  10. Aldol Condensation

12. Carboxylic Acids

Nomenclature

Structure & Physical Properties

Preparation

  1. Oxidation of Alkenes
  2. Oxidation of Alcohols
  3. Oxidation of Aldehydes
  4. Oxidation of Alkylbenzene
  5. Carbonation of Grignard Reagent
  6. Hydrolysis of Nitriles and Cyanohydrins

Chemical Properties

  1. Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
  2. Formation of Salts
  3. Reduction
  4. Hell-Volhard-Zelinski Reaction
  5. Synthesis of Acid Derivatives
  6. Formation of Acid Chlorides
  7. Formation of Acid Anhydrides
  8. Formation of Esters
  9. Formation of Amides

13. Amines

Nomenclature

Preparation

  1. From Alkyl Halides
  2. Reduction of Nitriles
  3. Hofmann Bromamide Reaction

Chemical Properties

  1. Basic Character
  2. Alkylation
  3. Acylation
  4. Carbylamine Reaction
  5. Reaction with Nitrous Acid
  6. Condensation

14. Nitro Compounds

Nomenclature

Preparation

  1. From Alkyl Halides
  2. Nitration of Alkanes
  3. Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

Chemical Properties

  1. Reduction
  2. Hydrolysis
  3. Thermal Decomposition
  4. Ring Substitution

15. Practical Organic Chemistry

Qualitative Analysis

  1. Detection of Carbon & Hydrogen
  2. Test for Nitrogen
  3. Test for Sulphur
  4. Test for Halogens
  5. Test for Phosphorus

Quantitative Analysis

  1. Carbon and Hydrogen
  2. Nitrogen: Duma's Method
  3. Nitrogen: Kjeldahl's Method
  4. Halogens: Carius Method
  5. Sulphur
  6. Phosphorus
  7. Oxygen

16. Polymers

  1. Monomers and Polymers
  2. Types of Polymers
  3. Polymerization
  4. Addition & Condensation Polymerization
  5. Natural and Synthetic Polymers
  6. Structure of Polymers
  7. Molecular Forces in Polymers

Important Polymers

  1. Polydiens
  2. Polyolefins
  3. Polyester
  4. Polyamide

17. Biomolecules

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Lipids
  4. Nucleic Acids
  5. Enzymes

18. Medicines

  1. Meaning of Medicines
  2. Antipyretics
  3. Analgesics
  4. Antimalarials
  5. Germicides, Disinfectant and Antiseptic
  6. Antacids
  7. Anaesthetics
  8. Antimicrobials
  9. Tranquilizers and Hypnotics
  10. Fertility Control Medicines
  11. Alternative Systems of Medicines